By Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley
In either the preferred mind's eye and between lawmakers and nationwide protection specialists, there exists the idea that with enough motivation and fabric assets, states or terrorist teams can produce bioweapons simply, cost effectively, and effectively. In Barriers to Bioweapons, Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley demanding situations this notion through exhibiting that bioweapons improvement is a tricky, protracted, and costly activity, hardly attaining the anticipated effects regardless of the value of funding. Her findings are in keeping with wide interviews she performed with former U.S. and Soviet-era bioweapons scientists and on cautious research of archival information and different historic files on the topic of a number of country and terrorist bioweapons programs.
Bioweapons improvement will depend on dwelling organisms which are delicate to their atmosphere and dealing with stipulations, and for that reason behave unpredictably. those beneficial properties position a better top class on really expert wisdom. Ben Ouagrham-Gormley posits that loss of entry to such highbrow capital constitutes the best barrier to the making of bioweapons. She integrates theories drawn from economics, the sociology of technological know-how, association, and administration together with her empirical study. The ensuing theoretical framework rests at the concept that the speed and luck of a bioweapons improvement software will be measured via its skill to make sure the production and move of medical and technical wisdom. the explicit organizational, managerial, social, political, and financial stipulations beneficial for fulfillment are tricky to accomplish, rather in covert courses the place the necessity to hinder detection imposes managerial and organizational stipulations that clash with wisdom production.
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Additional resources for Barriers to Bioweapons: The Challenges of Expertise and Organization for Weapons Development
Nevertheless, by using this framework, we can interrogate the information we do possess in new ways. Also, understanding what we do not know can help focus intelligence-collection efforts. In addition, adopting an analytical framework that emphasizes the sustenance phase of weapons programs is more useful for understanding why some programs succeed while others fail. This new framework also has important policy implications. By shedding light on underappreciated variables of bioweapons proliferation, policymakers and analysts alike can design new nonproliferation and counterproliferation policies that take into account a program’s specific circumstances and increase the chances that such policies will more efficiently delay, disrupt, or possibly even terminate a program.
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In some cases, elements judged to be insignificant by source laboratory personnel proved to be essential as they experimented with the technology. , Soviet, and British nuclear programs, sociologists of science Donald MacKenzie and Graham Spinardi describe how the Soviets took a year longer than the Americans to produce a nuclear weapon. S. nuclear diagrams stolen by Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs, they still had to address their own range of scientific and technological challenges unique to the Soviet context.
Barriers to Bioweapons: The Challenges of Expertise and Organization for Weapons Development by Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley