By Erika Lee
With the chinese language Exclusion Act of 1882, chinese language employees grew to become the 1st staff in American heritage to be excluded from the USA at the foundation in their race and sophistication. This landmark legislations replaced the process U.S. immigration heritage, yet we all know little approximately its effects for the chinese language in the USA or for the USA as a kingdom of immigrants.
At America's Gates is the 1st booklet dedicated fullyyt to either chinese language immigrants and the yank immigration officers who sought to maintain them out. Erika Lee explores how chinese language exclusion legislation not just remodeled chinese language American lives, immigration styles, identities, and households but additionally recast the USA right into a ''gatekeeping nation.'' Immigrant id, border enforcement, surveillance, and deportation regulations have been prolonged a ways past any controls that had existed within the usa sooner than.
Drawing on a wealthy trove of ancient sources--including lately published immigration files, oral histories, interviews, and letters--Lee brings alive the forgotten trips, secrets and techniques, hardships, and triumphs of chinese language immigrants. Her well timed booklet exposes the legacy of chinese language exclusion in present American immigration keep an eye on and race kin.
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Additional info for At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943
In an attempt to create some type of system that would allow me to analyze immigrant arrival ﬁles from the entire exclusion period, I surveyed and collected data from more than immigrant ﬁles from to , selected by random sample. Following the extensive paper trails that each ﬁle contained, I reviewed several dozen other ﬁles as well. S. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service). But my survey of the San Francisco ﬁles allowed me to track larger changes in immigrant composition, transnational migration patterns and networks, enforcement practices, immigration service personnel, immigrant strategies (such as the use of lawyers), and the complex relationship between immigration oﬃcials and Chinese, as well as the changing terrain of exclusion over its sixty-one years of existence.
Prejudice, jealousy, competition, and fear are the building blocks of Chinese exclusion. Demonstrating the wide national appeal of the movement, the wall is held together with ‘‘congressional mortar’’ being doled out by President Grover Cleveland. Courtesy of the University of Minnesota Library. The Example of Chinese Exclusion: Immigration Regulation The concepts of race that developed out of Chinese exclusion provided the ideological structure within which other immigrant groups were compared and racialized.
Western politicians eﬀectively claimed the right to speak for the rest of the country and to assert American national sovereignty in the name of Chinese exclusion. They argued that it was nothing less than the duty and the sovereign right of Californians and Americans writ large to exclude the Chinese for the good of the country. H. N. Clement, the San Francisco lawyer, explicitly combined the themes of racial diﬀerence, the closed gate/closed door metaphor, and national sovereignty to articulate this philosophy.
At America's Gates: Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943 by Erika Lee