A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences - download pdf or read online

By A. Reutlinger

ISBN-10: 1137281049

ISBN-13: 9781137281043

ISBN-10: 1349447994

ISBN-13: 9781349447992

This primary complete size therapy of interventionist theories of causation within the social sciences, the organic sciences and different higher-level sciences the offers unique counter arguments to contemporary traits within the debate and serves as beneficial advent to the topic.

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4, connecting X and Y, means ‘X directly causes Y’ or ‘Y directly causally depends on X’. If, in a sequence of arrows, all edges point in the same direction, then this is called a directed path connecting more than two variables or a chain leading from one variable X to another variable Y via further intermediary variable Z. 5). If X is connected to Y by just one arrow, such as X→Y (here, → is a directed edge), then X is represented in the graph as the direct cause of Y. If X is connected to Y by a directed path comprising more than one arrow, such as X→Z→Y, then X is represented in the graph as an indirect cause of Y.

For our scientists, this has a straightforward implication: if they want the test for Silencin to be reliable, then they have to require that their distribution of Silencin and of the placebo is a cause of the patients’ ingestion of either of the drugs. For example, the scientists have to exclude that patients spit out the drug or throw it away. 2 According to the second condition, there is at least some value of I such that if I takes this value, then X depends only on I and on no other variables; that is, I is the only cause of X.

On notation: capital letters, such as X, Y, Z, … denote variables; lower case letters, such as x, y, z, … denote values of variables; the proposition that X has a certain value x is expressed by a statement of the form X = x; that is X = x is a statement about an event-type (cf. 9). In other words, we can use the language of variables to express quantitative and qualitative type-level causal claims. 68 as a possible value of M. An example of a qualitative eventtype represented by a binary variable is: the qualitative event-type drinking coffee is represented by the event-type statement C = 1, where C is a binary variable, which represents coffee consumption, ranging over the set {0;1} of possible values.

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A Theory of Causation in the Social and Biological Sciences by A. Reutlinger

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